Phyto-nutrients are plant based nutrients with a wide range of healing powers. Classifications for types are listed in bold in the far left hand column with sub-classifications under them in the same left hand column

Phyto-nutrient Actions Sources Notes Examples sub-types
Terpenoids antioxidant; immuno-supportive;   anti-inflammatory; cancer-preventative molecules derived from vit B5   containing compound and usually containing oxygen all carotenoids (including   carotenes – e.g. beta-carotene, lycopene and all xanthophylls – zeaxanthis,   crptotoxanthin), limonene, terpineol, camphor
Carotenes anti-oxidants, enhance immune   functions, anti-tumor, stimulate anti-oxidant mechanisms Dark-coloured vegetables such   as: carrots, squash, spinach, kale, tomatoes, sweet potatoes; fruits such as   cantaloupe, apricots, citrus fruit Pigment identifiable – red and   yellow vegetables and fruits; green leafy vegetables; over 600 carotenes,   some (e.g. 50) can be metabolised into Vit A. Beta Carotene most biologically   active and most converted to Vit A
Limonoids gallstone treatment, anti-cancer   (blocks carcinogens), enhances detoxification Citrus fruits
Flavonoids Anti-oxidants; direct anti-tumor   effects; immune enhancing properties Fruits, especially darker fruits   such as berries, cherries, citrus fruits; vegetables: including tomatoes,   peppers, broccoli, onions, greens, parsley; legumes; green tea and red wine;   ginkgo biloba Natures biological response   modifiers – anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-viral, anti-cancer   properties, primarily working as anti-oxidants to protect cells quercetin, rutin, hesperidin,   myricetin, naringen, butin, catechin, myricetin flavonols, anthocyanidins
Quercetin Anti-oxidant; helps reduce   inflammation; promotes activity of hormones (e.g. insulin); treatment of   allergies Onions
Citrus bioflavonoids Anti-oxidant; improves blood circulation;   increases ability of key nutrients to leave capillaries and reach cells;   protects against colon cancer; enhances activity of Vitamin C Oranges, Limes, Lemons,   Grapefruit
Polyphenols Anti-oxidants; Block carcinogen   formation; modulate hormone receptors; protect against heart disease, cancers   (especially those of GI tract) – work by blocking cancer causing chemicals   such as nitrosamines Green tea; Chocolate; Red Wine
Isoflavonoids Block estrogen receptors Soy and other legumes
Tannins anti-oxidant and cancer   preventative polyphenolic substances like   flavonoids; bind tightly to other molecules and are less likely to be   absorbed due to larger size punicaligin, punicalin, gallic   acid, ellagic acid condensed tannins – including   proanthocyanidins; and hydrolyzable tannins – including gallogannins and   ellagitannins
PCOs – proanthocyanidin oligomers Prevent destruction of collagen   – protein needed for healthy skin and connective tissue blue or purple pigment found in   grapes, blueberries, etc Also in grape seed and pine bark
Phenylpropanoids anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory,   immune stimulating
Coumarins Anti-tumor properties; enhance   immune functions; stimulate anti-oxidant mechanisms Carrots, Celery, Fennel, Beets,   Citrus fruits
Lignans Anti-oxidants; modulate hormone   receptors Flaxseed and flaxseed oil; whole   grains, nuts, seeds
Sulfur   compounds anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer,   immuno-supportive, anti-biotic often derived from amino acids allicin, alliin, methiin,   sinigrin
Allium   compounds Lower cholesterol, anti-tumor Garlic, Onions
Dithiolthiones,   Glucosinolates, Thiocyanates Block cancer-causing compounds   from damaging cells Cabbage family vegetables:   Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, Kale, etc
Glucosinolates   and Inodoles Stimulate enzymes that detoxify   cancer causing compounds cabbage, Brussel sprouts, kale,   radishes, mustard greens
Isothiocyanates,   Thiocyanates Inhibit damage to genetic   material (DNA) Cabbage family vegetables:   Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, Kale, etc
Glycosides anti-inflammatory, anticancer,   immuno-supportive, anti-oxidant molecules containing   carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate portions linked together saponins
Sterols Block production of carcinogens;   Modulate hormone receptors Soy, nuts, seeds, cucumbers,   whole grains, squash, cabbage family vegetables some are pigment identifiable;   they can bind to other molecules; are less likely to be absorbed due to   larger size
Alkaloids Anti-oxidant ,   immuno-supportive, cancer preventative nitrogen containing compounds   derived from amino acids caffeine
Phthalides Stimulate detoxification enzymes Parsley, carrots, celery

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (1998). The complete book of juicing. Roseville, CA: Prima publishing

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Haas, E. (2006). Staying Healthy with Nutrition. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Healing Arts.

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