• Anti-oxidant defense – co-factor in production of oxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) which disarms free-radicals produced in cell mitochondria
  • SOD deficiency leads to strains, sprains and inflammation
  • Anti-inflammatory aid for people with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic inflammatory disorders
  • Enhances enzyme systems for blood sugar control, energy metabolism, thyroid hormone function, cholesterol synthesis, protein synthesis
  • Cerebral function – critical for glucose utilization within neuron, adenylate cyclase activity and neurotransmitter control
Source and function notes
  • High intake of iron, calcium or phosphorus create greater need for manganese, especially iron – if manganese intake high, iron intake will be lower
  • Not stored well in body and aluminium decreases tissue stores further
  • Activates enzymes for body to use Biotin, Vitamins B1, C and Choline
  • Activates glutamine synthetase (glutamine is small intestine fuel)
Vegetable sources spinach; turnip greens; rhubarb; beet greens; Brussel spouts; carrots; broccoli; cabbage; peas; beets; tomato
Fruit sources Raisins, Peach, Tangerine Apple, Orange, Pear, Cantaloupe melon, Apricot
Nut and seed sources Pecans, Brazil nuts, Almonds, Walnuts,  Peanuts, Coconut
Absorption factors Absorption inhibited by phytic acid and excess iron in diet – Manganese competes principally with Iron for absorption
Spice and herb sources Cloves, Ginger, Thyme, Bay Leaves
Deficiency factors
Toxicity and dangers  Links to epilepsy

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

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